Go forward into 2018 by stepping into the past–books on Jamaican music history in stock, ready to ship! Order now! Skabook.com.
Ever wonder how Vincent Chin became known as Randy’s? It was after another Randy’s Records that Chin named himself, his shop, and his label–one that was featured during an advertisement on WLAC in Nashville, Tennessee. On a clear day or night, Kingstonians and Jamaicans could tune in to WLAC to hear early rhythm and blues and so the advertisements for Randy’s Records in Gallatin, Tennessee were part of the broadcast. The following is an article on the original Randy’s Records, named for proprietor Randy Wood:
Jamaican music has long chronicled political and social events, even when there are no lyrics. Ska songs, most notably those by the Skatalites, frequently bear the titles of politics, popular culture, and events of the day. Perhaps the most popular example of this is the Skatalites’ song “Christine Keeler,” a peppy little number with seductive horns that bear witness to the political scandal, the Profumo Affair, that rocked Britain, and therefore Jamaica, which was at that time was a newly independent nation. It was a cover song of “Comin’ Home Baby” by Ben Tucker, recorded by The Dave Bailey Quintet, Mel Torme, and Herbie Mann before the Skatalites recorded their re-titled version. It was likely that Coxsone Dodd at Studio One gave it the name “Christine Keeler” since the salacious name would sell better than “Comin’ Home Baby.”
Keeler, who died on December 4, 2017 at the age of 75, was a siren. She was a beautiful model who had an affair in 1961 with the British secretary for war, John Profumo, and the Soviet attache Yevgeny Ivanov. This resulted in the resignation of British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in 1963. It was the stuff of spy scripts, and was too alluring not to commemorate in song.
Add to this another layer of Jamaican linkup, quite literally, as Keeler had a relationship with Aloysius “Lucky” Gordon, a Jamaican jazz vocalist who had immigrated to the UK. Gordon’s obituary in the Guardian last March, which was written by Chris Salewicz, discussed the connection:
“On 7 August 1961, in the Rio Cafe in run-down Notting Hill, west London, Aloysius ‘Lucky’ Gordon, a Jamaican jazz singer and hustler, met Christine Keeler for the first time. It was an encounter that would unravel a scandal and help to secure the downfall of the Conservatives at the 1964 election, ushering in the Labour administration of Harold Wilson. Gordon, who has died aged 85, was affected by its consequences for the rest of his life.
He was selling marijuana, and Keeler was looking to buy. With her were two men: Stephen Ward, the mysterious society osteopath, a pimp-like mentor to the soon-to-be-notorious Keeler, and John Profumo, secretary of state for war and Keeler’s lover, who handed the young woman cash for the drug.
Gordon was immediately besotted by the beautiful 19-year-old model. Soon he also became her lover, but their fractious relationship quickly disintegrated in violent encounters. In the second half of 1962 Keeler sought refuge from Gordon’s temper by hooking up with Johnny Edgecombe, an Antiguan shebeen owner. That led to a confrontation between Edgecombe and Gordon in October of that year outside the Flamingo Club in central London, in which Edgecombe slashed Gordon’s face with a knife, the wound requiring 17 stitches.”
The website, nickelinthemachine.com, takes the story from there:
“Gordon was treated for his wound at a local hospital but a few days later in a fit of jealousy, and rather unpleasantly, he posted the seventeen used stitches to Keeler and warned her that for each stitch he had sent she would also get two on her face in return.
Meanwhile a scared Edgecombe, along with Keeler, went into hiding from the police. Keeler even bought a Luger pistol in a bid to protect herself from the dangerous and still threatening Gordon.
On December 14th 1962 Keeler finished with Edgecombe, after finding him with another lover, saying that she would testify that it was he who had attacked Lucky Gordon at The Flamingo two months previously.
Keeler went to visit her friend Mandy Rice-Davies at Stephen Ward’s flat in Wimpole Mews with Johnny Edgecombe following her there in a taxi. When Keeler refused to speak to him he angrily shot seven bullets at the door of the flat. Frightened, the girls called Ward at his surgery and he in turn called the police who soon came and arrested Edgecombe.
Before Edgecombe’s trial, Keeler was whisked off to Spain, one assumes because somebody, somewhere, thought various people would be badly compromised if she was allowed to talk in the witness box. Conspicuous by Keeler’s absence Edgecombe was found not guilty, both for assaulting Lucky Gordon and the attempted murder of Keeler. He was, however, found guilty of possession of an illegal firearm, for which he got seven years and served five.
On April 1st 1963 Christine was fined for her non-appearance at court and Lucky Gordon was bundled away by the Metropolitan police, shouting ‘I love that girl!’ Not long after Keeler bumped into Gordon back at The Flamingo Club and again he had to be dragged away from her by other West Indian friends of hers.
In June 1963 Gordon was given a three year prison sentence for supposedly assaulting Keeler and in the same month Stephen Ward was arrested for living off Christine’s immoral earnings.
By now the whole story involving Profumo and the Russian attache/spy Ivananov was emerging, drip by drip. The chain of events that started with the fight of Keeler’s jealous ex-lovers at The Flamingo Club eventually caused the infamous resignation of the Secretary of State for War John Profumo, the suicide of high society’s favourite pimp, portrait painter and osteopath Stephen Ward, and ultimately, it could be said, the fall of the Conservative government.
In December 1963, after a drunken tape-recorded confession that she had lied about Gordon assaulting her, Keeler pleaded guilty of perjury and conspiracy to obstruct justice at Lucky Gordon’s trial. Her barrister had pleaded to the judge before sentencing: ‘Ward is dead, Profumo is disgraced. And now I know your lordship will resist the temptation to take what I might call society’s pound of flesh.’ It was to no avail and Christine Keeler was sentenced to nine months in jail which ended what her barrister termed, a little prematurely: ‘the last chapter in this long saga that has been called the Keeler affair.'”
According to Howard Campbell in the Jamaica Observer, “After his release from prison, Gordon worked as a cook in London for Island Records founder Chris Blackwell. He prepared meals for some of the label’s artistes including Bob Marley.”
Let’s listen to one good thing that has come from this horrible mess–that classic song by the Skatalites, “Christine Keeler.”
After three years of intensive research, visits to Alpha, writing, rewriting, editing, layout and design, and countless Skype conversations, Alpha Boys’ School: Cradle of Jamaican Music is finally here! Perhaps one day, Adam, my co-author, and I will actually meet! Yes, you got that right–we’ve never actually met! That’s modern technology for you. We were able to bring together work that we had already done–Adam on a documentary on Alpha some years back, and me with my work researching and interviewing and visiting Alpha, and yet we live across a big pond from one another. Adam hails from Brighton, U.K. and I am just outside of Chicago.
Adam and I had known each other, albeit virtually, for years so when he approached me to ask me about writing this book, I jumped at the chance. I had long envisioned writing this book, and had even asked officials at Alpha to work with me on this book, but they have limited resources, limited time, and much bigger missions, like the boys themselves! Thankfully Adam came along with a similar vision and we began planning this book at the end of 2013. We started writing the following year.
Adam had worked on a documentary on Alpha musicians many years ago. In fact, he traveled to Alpha in Kingston with a film crew and that film is now in the hands of two capable directors and will hopefully see the light of day soon, but as anyone in film will tell you, funding is always an obstacle. Adam is still involved, but tangentially. So he had access to the audio of the interviews he conducted during this time, which included quite a few Alpha Boys in the U.K. who came for a reunion concert in 2007.
I had done a number of interviews of Alpha Boys over the course of my work and so I utilized those, and both Adam and I conducted a whole batch of new interviews. Needless to say, a number of Alpha Boys have died and so for those we were able to utilize newspaper and magazine archives, genealogy archives, and interviews with family members. For all of these interviews, Adam and I are most grateful.
I want to also mention that there is a chapter written by guest author Roberto Moore. He penned a spectacular chapter on Sammy Ismay which includes exclusive photos and even notations of Sammy’s musical scores! We are tremendously thankful to Roberto who is an expert in early Jamaican music and a hell of a writer and researcher.
The cover is by the incredibly talented Jean-Christophe Molinéris who painted the beautiful cover of my Don Drummond: The Genius and Tragedy of the World’s Greatest Trombonist. He lives in Paris and we have also never met! One day. The cover design was done by Chris “Sick Moore.
David “Ram Jam” Rodigan wrote the foreword for the book, and there are reviews from a number of notable people in the book, which I have posted below. Thanks to these people for their time and thoughts.
Adam and I hope that this book will both enhance the listening pleasure of fans, bring new ears to this music, and preserve the history of these important musicians for generations to come.
Who is in this book? Well here’s the list of the chapters in this 400-page comprehensive book, which includes a large section on the history of the band and the bandmasters, a suggested listening section, and hundreds of photos, many from private family collections:
- Sister Mary Ignatius Davies
- Leslie Thompson
- Bertie King
- Sonny Grey
- Dudley Farrier
- Tommy McCook
- Wilton “Bogey” Gaynair
- Ferdinand “Bobby” Gaynair
- Joe Harriott
- Vernon “Von Mullo” Möller
- Harold “Little G” McNair
- Alphonso “Dizzy” Reece
- The Skatalites
- “Deadly” Headley Bennett
- Edward “Tan Tan” Thornton
- Bobby Ellis
- Don Drummond
- Emmanuel “Rico” Rodriguez
- Lester Sterling
- Karl “Cannonball” Bryan
- Raymond Harper
- Samuel “Sammy” Ismay
- Johnny “Dizzy” Moore
- Owen Gray
- Winston “Sparrow” Martin
- Kenneth “Mutt” Davy
- Ron Wilson
- Leslie Samuels
- Joseph “Jo Jo” Bennett
- Glen DaCosta
- Cedric “IM” Brooks
- David Madden
- Tony Gregory
- Johnny Osbourne
- “Floyd” Lloyd Seivright
- Uriah Johnson
- Vincent Gordon “Don Drummond Jr.”
- Jackie Willacy
- Leroy “Horsemouth” Wallace
- Albert “Apple Gabriel” Craig
- Leroy Smart
- Albert Malawi “Ilawi”
- Vernal Kelly, AKA Charlie “Eskimo” Fox
- Winston “Yellowman” Foster
- Tony Greene
- Osbert Maddo, AKA Papa Madoo
- Tafane Buchsaecab
- Nicholas Laraque
- Denver Smith, AKA Feluke
Praise for Alpha Boys School: Cradle of Jamaican Music
The Alpha Boys’ School is at the roots of the explosion of Jamaican music which has circled the world, starting in the late fifties and still evolving right up to today. There are only three countries whose popular music is played all over the world—American music, British music, and Jamaican music. We owe maximum respect and thanks to the Alpha Boys’ School for its contribution to this fact. Chris Blackwell, founder of Island Records
The Alpha Boys School has produced more major musical talents than any other Jamaican institution, with legendary faculty led by pugnacious Sister Ignatius who had her own legendary sound system. The rambunctious history of the school is now revealed in its fullness by the tireless research of Heather Augustyn and Adam Reeves in a book filled with riotous and rootical ramblings in its hallowed halls. Roger Steffens, author of So Much Things to Say: The Oral History of Bob Marley
A significant history of popular Jamaican music has been documented by this book. It tells how monumental Alpha Boys’ School has been and is without parallel. The testimony of the Alpharians interviewed bears witness to this, as their revelations are insightful and deep. Coming through the narrative is the towering humanity of Sister Ignatius. Dermot Hussey, on-air host, SiriusXM Satellite Radio
The story of the Alpha Boys’ School is a tale of amazing love and care, the transformation of young lives, and the creation of the music for which Jamaica is known across the world. To understand the development, reach and power of Jamaican popular music is to understand the legacy of Alpha and its impact on Jamaica’s creative community. Alpha’s story must be told and retold. The Honourable Olivia Grange, CD, MP, Minister of Culture, Gender, Entertainment and Sport, Government of Jamaica
Under the auspices of the benign taskmistress that was Sister Mary Ignatius Davies, Kingston’s Alpha Boys School was the seed-ground for much of Jamaica’s very greatest music. Among its alumni were Rico Rodriguez, Cedric Brooks, Vin Gordon, Eddie ‘Tan Tan’ Thornton, Joe Harriott, Harold McNair, and Leroy ‘Horsemouth’ Wallace. Alpha was an extraordinary educational establishment that literally saved the lives—and directed the first steps of their careers—for many of these artists. There was never a school like it. Chris Salewicz, acclaimed music writer
The progressive role played by Alpha in Jamaican music history can never be underestimated. From the days of Jamaican jazz stars like Bertie King, Joe Harriott, Dizzy Reece, Harold McNair and Wilton Gaynair, through the ska period of Don Drummond, Johnny Moore and Tommy McCook and into the period of roots reggae and dancehall with such prominent artists as Leroy Smart and Winston ‘Yellowman’ Foster, Alpha has provided stability, schooling and musical skills to generations of young men, who owed their success to this wonderful institution. Steve Barrow, former director of Blood and Fire Records and author of The Rough Guide to Reggae
“These are some of my boys,” said Sister Ignatius proudly, gesturing towards the portraits lining the walls. It was my first visit to Kingston’s famed Alpha School, and looking back at us were some of the most gifted and influential musicians that Jamaica has ever produced—all of whom learnt their craft at Alpha, and would make timeless contributions to ska, rocksteady and early reggae music. This invaluable book is the first such tribute to these pioneers, many of whom came from deprived backgrounds, and also those who taught and encouraged them. John Masouri, reggae journalist and author of Steppin’ Razor: The Life of Peter Tosh
It is impossible to overstate the importance of Alpha Boys School. By providing opportunity to young talents who wouldn’t normally have access to musical instruments and training, Alpha vastly enriched the culture within Jamaica, and by extension, the world. Simply put, without Alpha there wouldn’t be Jamaican music as we know it. Respect is due to Alpha for a gift that is as immense as it is immeasurable, and continues to this day. Beth Lesser, reggae photographer and author of Dancehall: The Rise of Jamaican Dancehall Culture
Alpha was formed in 1880 and from that time until now, every musical event that come out of Jamaica, Alpha Boys were involved with it, either playing in a band or production. Alpha is the backbone of Jamaican music today. Tony Greene, Alpha graduate, formerly with the Roots Radics Band and We the People Band
I wrote the following article for the Vinyl Record Collectors’ Association’s magazine for their 20th anniversary Annual Memorial Day Collectors’ Sit-In in Kingston, Jamaica. Special thanks to my great friends Charlotte Smikle and Roberto Moore for their assistance in allowing me this opportunity, and helping me to research and edit!
I have been spending almost every waking moment finishing my latest book with my co-author Adam Reeves and am pleased to report that it will be out later this summer, so get ready for Alpha Boys School: Cradle of Jamaican Music which is coming in at nearly 400 pages! It has been three years in the making. Which is why I have had little time for blogging lately, so this week I offer the words of Hedley Jones on the history of the term, “Riding a Riddim.” Mr. Jones, as you may know, is an electrical engineer and the inventor of the electric guitar with a wood body. One of his inventions can be seen at the Jamaica Music Museum in Kingston, and you can read more about him in my blog post HERE.
Here is Hedley Jones’s take on the term, “Riding a Riddim” from the Jamaica Gleaner, December 17, 1999.
At the same time that a number of artists were traveling to the United States for the World’s Fair in New York, as well as appearing in New York City for Jamaican Independence Day celebrations, and promotions in Miami and New York for the next dance craze, the ska, some of those same musicians were appearing on Jamaican televisions, performing and even winning awards. Here is an article from July 17, 1964 that shows a few musicians who had won a “Silver Star” from the Star Newspaper, presented by Edward Seaga, who was then the minister of development and welfare, the same post he had in selecting the large crew of musicians to the U.S. The article reads as follows:
Carlos Malcolm and his Afro-Jamaican Rhythms, Lord Creator, Pluggy and Beryl and Ranny Williams–winners of the Week-End STAR awards for 1963–received their Silver STars from the Minister of Development and Welfare, the Hon. Edward Seaga, last Friday afternoon. Making the presentations in the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation studios, where the function was televised, Mr. Seaga commended the Gleaner Co. Ltd., publishers of the STAR, for what he said was ‘a wonderful idea’ which would be something for artistes to work towards each year. The popular arts had lacked encouragement for a long time but the Minister assured his listeners that ‘a lot of things are happening.’ The Managing Director of the Gleaner Company, Mr. S. G. Fletcher, introduced the artistes to the Minister. Carols Malcolm and his Afr0-Jamaicans, received the ‘Oscar’ as the best band; Carlos received the award for the best individual instrumentalists; Lord Creator, the best male singer; Pluggy and Beryl, best dance team; and Ranny Williams, the best comedian. The winner of the award for the best female singer–Totlyn Jackson–is off the island and was unable to be present. Mr. Fletcher explained that the Company felt that good performances which were pleasing to the public should be recognized. He hoped the awards would be an encouragement to the artistes. The award-winners performed in a brief but entertaining show. Pictures on this page show the artistes as they appeared on the TV screen following the presentation. Mater of Ceremonies was Fred Wilmot. The programme was a presentation of the Jamaica Information Service.
Here are a few of my favorite Lord Creator and Carlos Malcom tunes.
Okay, so maybe this blog title is clickbait, but it’s only done to bring attention to the challenges that women in early Jamaican music, like Hortense Ellis, experienced in the 1960s and beyond. This is a topic I have addressed in my book, Songbirds: Pioneering Women in Jamaican Music, and Hortense Ellis was an artist who was perhaps most vocal about being treated unwell. Over the years we have heard plenty about artists not feeling that they were paid their due, but Hortense Ellis was frequently not paid at all! And she had nine children and so her work, her labors and talent, were of even more importance. Her recordings put food on her table, so she had to fight for what was hers.
One of my good friends recently shared this Star Newspaper article with me. He knew I had long championed the career of Hortense Ellis and was further frustrated this past February when attending the Trenchtown Music Festival after hearing Alton Ellis’s son, Christopher Ellis, give a roll call of the musicians who came from Trenchtown, yet he omitted his own aunt!
I have previously written about Hortense Ellis HERE so you can have a read.
But here is the text transcribed from that Star Newspaper article from September 2, 1966:
Singing in the bath tub usually leads to nothing but shouts of protest from the neighbours or starts the dog howling in the backyard. But for Hortense Ellis, it has led to a very successful singing career. Now known as Jamaica’s first lady of song, Hortense has gone just about as far as a girl can in local entertainment circles and now she wants to go abroad.
Brother Alton Ellis, himself a popular vocalist, was the one who first got Hortense into the show business world ,by introducing her to the ten popular Vere Johns Opportunity Hour Shows.”
I pause here to note that though she may have been introduced to the talent show by her brother, animosity was created in the family when she beat him! That’s right, in the grand championships, Hortense took first place and Alton took second! And her oldest daughter told me that this rivalry continued throughout her life. Alton never seemed to get over it, according to her daughter. That story is in Songbirds: Pioneering Women in Jamaica Music.
Back to the article:
“And it was through these shows that bandleader Byron Lee heard her sing and signed her up for some stage shows that really got her career going. The stage show fans really took to Hortense and when she recorded ‘I’ll Come Softly’ it was at the top of the hit parade for a month.
Since then, Hortense has been on nearly every local stage show and has been among the supporting artistes at shows starring the most famous names in show business–names like Ben E. King, Doris Troy, Patty [sic] LaBelle and the Blue Bells, Mamie Harvey, Solomon Burke and Dionne Warwick.
Patty [sic] LaBelle had for a long time been a favourite of Hortense and when Patti heard her sing, she gave her considerable encouragement. But Solomon Burke was even more enthusiastic about Hortense’s talent. He said that she only needed a little more experience to be a big hit. He advised her to go to the United States and ‘try to make the big time.’
‘But I’m weak to help myself,’ she confesses sadly. ‘I need a manager to help me.’ Hortense loves show business. But hates the way the artistes are often treated by some of the promoters.
‘I have a special love for my fans,’ she told me. ‘And I love the excitement of stage shows. I usually have to have six songs ready when I go on because they always want an encore. So although I want to leave Jamaica now to get some experience I would never leave here forever.’
I asked her if she thought she could make a living here without having to go abroad.
Don’t want to pay
You can make a living here, but we are not treated fairly by some of the promoters. They don’t want to pay us. We see a full house at a show and then they tell us that they didn’t make enough at the gate to meet expenses. They say that most of the people crashed the gate and got in free. Maybe the Government could do something for us instead of letting us suffer under local promoters.’
I reminded her of the Tops in Local show, which was put on by the artistes and backed by a loan from the Ministry of Development and Welfare.
‘Yes,’ said the young vocalist, ‘but we had to pay back the money and there wasn’t anything left. They should have helped us with more shows.’
Promptness at rehearsals was something promoters were always claiming the artistes ignored, and I asked Hortense about this.
‘When you are not paid for a job and not given a proper contract and no one seems interested in you, you don’t have any impetus to turn up.’
And this is why Hortense is now looking for someone to help her as a manager or promoter.
Speaking for herself and her fellow artistes she said: ‘If we know there is someone interested in us, we will be prompt and turn up for every rehearsal and do anything he wants, as long as we get a fair deal. What they are giving us now is not even taxi fare. We are being trampled.’
Back in 2014 I blogged about the “pop-a-top” style after Derrick Morgan told me about his foray into this rhythm, and there was much debate about the validity of this music–whether or not it was a proper genre, if it was simply a rhythm, or if it was even something less than that. You can read the original post HERE. There was was decent discussion that took place in the comment section after the blog post, though the debate occurred mainly on the Pama Forum.
I had read David Katz’s interview with Lynford Anderson in Solid Foundation on this topic. Katz states, “The wacky ‘Pop A Top’ voiced by Anderson under the alias I did ‘Pop A Top,’ the first talking record in Jamaica, was another early quirky deejay disc. On this one Anderson attempted to mimic the bubbling sound featured on an advertisement for Canada Dry ginger ale over an adaptation of a popular New Orleans R&B number. As he explains: ‘I did Pop-A-Top, the first talking record in Jamaica–you can put that in any book. I heard the commercial–the guy said “Pop A Top.” Then I had this rhythm, “South Parkway Mambo,” a very old song by Dave Bartholomew. The instrumental version I was trying to re-create didn’t work, so we didn’t touch that tape for years. Once I got it out, Lloyd Charmers stated playing “pup pup pup pup pup pup” [on the organ], so I said: “Oh, Pop A Top!” That’s how the song came about. The tune became a big hit, so eventually we had about 13 different versions of it.'”
I had the opportunity to talk to Derrick Morgan again on March 17, 2017 via phone, I decided to inquire again about pop-a-top, and below is our conversation on this subject.
Heather: Could you talk to me about pop-a-top, what is it and how was it created?
Derrick: Pop-a-top was created by Lynford Anderson. I did the song Fat Man in that rhythm for him. Then he got Ansel Collins doing the organ shuffle style and they call it pop-a-top. That’s how the pop-a-top came in. They were trying to find a different style of reggae, or a different name for reggae music, and they call it pop-a-top. Bup bup BOOP, bup bup BOOP, bup bup BOOP. That’s pop-a-top.
Heather: You recorded a number of songs in that style, right?
Derrick: Not many. I do Fat Man and John Crow Skank, but the rest of them is mixed, they mix it different like pop-a-top.
Heather: Were there others who recorded in that style?
Derrick: There were quite a few rhythms with the same shuffle, that organ shuffle, that pop-a-top shuffle, but it wasn’t for long.
Heather: And when did this happen–was it after rocksteady, after reggae?
Derrick: It was after rocksteady. Then the reggae came in and Bunny Lee and Lynford Anderson wanted to change the name to pop-a-top, but it only hit in England with a few tunes, like Fat Man.
Enjoy these pop-a-top tunes!
Derrick Morgan and I talked about other topics, such as how he discovered Bob Marley, female vocalists, his 14 children and their involvement in the music industry, the Vere Johns Opportunity Hour, and a day in the life at a recording studio, all of which I will bring to you in next week’s blog post! Please
This INTERVIEW on NPR’s “Tell Me More” show is a favorite of mine. Former Prime Minister Edward Seaga talks about the history of popular Jamaican music and his role in this important era where ska was in the spotlight. He talks about the songs “Oh Manny Oh,” “My Boy Lollipop,” “Wash Wash,” “Police and Thieves,” and others, as well as the artists behind them.
This interview was promotion for Seaga’s collection, “Reggae Golden Jubilee” that he put together in 2012 for the 50th anniversary of independence. It’s a four CD set and it has 100 songs from Theo Beckford’s “Easy Snapping,” to Shaggy’s “Boombastic,” which has been featured in just about every children’s animation film since 1995.
I’d highly recommend this collection because in addition to a choice selection of music curated by Seaga, there is also an outstanding liner note booklet with articles by Dermot Hussey, John Masouri, a preface from Christopher Chin, and track-by-track text from Daddy Lion Chandell, Donald Clive Davidson, and Roy Black. There’s plenty from Seaga himself in the liner notes as well.